Basic structure and composition of the camera

You're curious about cameras. To discover more about the fundamental design and arrangement of the camera, keep reading.


1. Basic controls 

  • 1- Shutter button 
  • 2- Shooting mode 
  • 3- Toad lamp 
  • 4- Lens 
  • 5- Lens aperture 
  • 6- Button Remove Menstrual Tube

2. Photo sensor 

Images have been stored on glass or film by cameras from the inception of the medium. Images are now reproduced on image sensor plates by digital cameras. Millions of light-sensing photodiodes arranged in a grid make up the sensor panels. The photograph is made up of the many photodiodes, each of which captures a little portion of the image. CCD and CMOS image sensors come in two varieties, and they both function much the same manner. More significant than the number of pixels on the sensor is the sensor's size.

  • Full frame: Regardless of the term "medium format," the biggest sensor size, which is comparable to a 35mm (24x36mm) film, is sometimes referred to as "full frame."

  • APS-C: A lot of DSLRs include a smaller sensor that is generally referred to as APS-C. It measures 22x15mm, or about 40% of a full-frame sensor's size.

  • Only 26% of a full-frame sensor is made up of the Four Thirds System.

  • The EOS 1D Mark III's APS-H is 61% full frame.

  • Foveon X3 from Sigma is 33% of full frame size.

  • The region is just 3% of the complete frame in a pocket device or phone with a 1/2.5" image sensor.

3. Lens

In order for the light to pass through and be focused on the film surface of a film camera or an image sensor in a digital camera, a lens assembly constructed of high-quality glass or plastic must be present. Some cameras, including PnS travel cameras and interchangeable lenses on DSLRs, have fixed-mount lenses. You have more control and creative freedom with several interchangeable lenses than with the final image.

The camera's eye is the lens. To create a picture, it gathers light rays and displays them onto the surface of the viewfinder or sensor. The lens is the most crucial component in image processing since it dictates the quality of the picture that is generated. There are basically 4 categories of lenses:

  • Standard lens - standard

  • Wide angle lens

  • Long focal length lens - telephoto

  • Multifocal lens - zoom

See article: learn basic lenses

4. Photography modes

Auto and basic automatic modes

This is a beginner-friendly camera setting. Both Canon and Nikon refer to it as Auto Full. When in this mode, your DSLR behaves much like a PnS, automatically adjusting the ISO speed, shutter speed, aperture, and exposure. To concentrate and push, you only half-press the shutter button. This automatically follows each subject: night picture, sports, macro, landscape.

  • Sports or action: To capture movement, the camera automatically selects a high ISO setting and a quick shutter time.

  • Landscape: To give depth to a sharp image, the camera automatically chooses tiny apertures.

  • Portrait: The camera will either automatically recognize a face to concentrate on that face or will increase the lens aperture to blur the backdrop.

  • When taking a nighttime photo, the camera either selects a shutter speed that is slow enough to catch the scene's finer details or it automatically activates the flash to illuminate nearby subjects.

  • Macro: When the subject is close, the camera will manage the focus area by reducing the aperture to add depth and produce a sharp image.

P / Program

Canon refers it it as Program Shift, whereas Nikon calls it Program AE mode. When you choose this option, the shutter speed and aperture are chosen by the camera automatically. However, you have complete flexibility over how the ISO speed, exposure correction, and other parameters are configured. When taking a quick photo without doing any calculations, you may leave the P mode on and lower the ISO to the lowest setting to decrease noise.

A / Av Aperture Priority

This is a semi-automatic mode that enables you to actively adjust the aperture (f-mode of the lens) as you see fit, and the camera automatically chooses the appropriate shutter speed in accordance with the aperture you pick to obtain the proper exposure. This approach is frequently referred to as "aperture priority." To shoot with an aperture of f/2.8, for instance, you would actively change the aperture to f/2.8, and the aperture would then automatically pick for the lighting environment you were shooting in.

S / Tv / Shutter Priority

Although both Nikon and Canon refer to it as shutter speed priority, Nikon uses the S and Canon uses the Tv. The A/Av mode mentioned above is the reverse of this mode. The shutter speed is actively selected, and the camera selects the associated aperture for the proper exposure. Select this option often when the photographer has to keep a fast shutter speed to prevent camera shake and the aperture is left up to the camera to decide.

M (Manuel)

Both Nikon and Canon use the abbreviation M, although Nikon refers to this mode as Manual while Canon refers to it as Metered Manual. This setting sometimes referred to as the manual shooting mode, is entirely manual. For each shot, you will need to actively pick the shutter speed and aperture. For long exposures, you can shoot in this mode at a fully active Bulb speed (push the shutter button, and the shutter will open continuously until the shutter is released, at which point it will close).

Ev (Exposure value)

By changing the EV values, shooting modes P, S, and A may be adjusted even further. This scale has several stages, each of which represents a different exposure ratio. A dial or knob is typically used to change the Ev value.

There is an exposure bracketing mode on some cameras. To further improve the odds of capturing a photo with optimal lighting, the camera automatically shoots a sequence of 3, 5, or 7 images in this mode.

5. Lights

Lights that are installed in the bodies of travel cameras (compact/pns) are triggered simultaneously with the shutter of the camera, but their duration and intensity cannot be adjusted. A pop-up light (toad) on DSLR cameras may be adjusted to synchronize with the shutter and provide the right amount of light for the scene.

  • When there is little light, the camera automatically activates the flash. The primary source of light will be the flash.

  • Turn off the flash to prevent automatic flashing of the light. When there is insufficient natural light, the camera automatically increases the ISO speed and selects the widest apertures to shoot photographs.

  • Fill flash: The camera automatically makes adjustments to balance the output of the flash with the available ambient light.

  • Red-eye reduction: Before taking a picture, the camera triggers the flash once. The goal of the preceding light was to cause the subject's pupils to contract and lessen the appearance of red eyes. This is a photography effect rather than a natural event.

  • Regarding the flash: Regardless of the illumination, the light will remain on while you are shooting.

6. Aiming system

The frame is defined in part by the viewfinder. The image in the viewfinder is always clear. Cameras include a second rangefinder in addition to the viewfinder that was created to help with focusing. It consists of a pair of tiny prisms or mirrors that are housed inside the camera. a fixed transparent mirror that allows for visibility. When the camera's lens is focused, the other set of mirrors or prisms rotates to indicate that the light passing through the lens has been focused at the same distance, as seen when the two pictures overlap.

B. Metering MODES

The parameters of the shooting time all depend on four variables:

  • The brightness of the subject or the intensity of the light striking it is reflected in the camera (bright circumstances).

  • Light sensitivity of a sensor (ISO)

  • the duration of exposure of the sensor (shutter speed).

  • light intensity entering the sensor (controlled by lens aperture)

In order to correctly expose the sensor, digital cameras feature an integrated metering system that aids in selecting the appropriate shutter speed, aperture, and light sensitivity. The speed and aperture adjustments are all directly connected to metering systems that were created to work with the camera. These systems all measure reflected light, or light from the subject impacting the camera.

Based on how much light really constitutes the image and what impact it has on the sensor, cameras measure light through the lens (TTL). That TTL metering technology instantly adapts to changes caused by changing lenses or adding filters to the front of lenses.

  • Because of the significant elements, center-weighted average metering is also referred to as "middle-weighted average metering," which concentrates on the center area somewhat downwards. This region is often where the focal point of any photograph is found.

  • Multi-segment metering mode, often known as matrix metering mode: Each segment (sector) in the viewfinder of a meter using this metering approach will measure a specific portion of the image, and the camera will gather all the information and determine the sensitivity, speed, and aperture appropriate for the lighting circumstances.

  • Spot metering produces extremely accurate characteristics by measuring at a small location. The metering point is in the middle of the viewfinder, and some cameras let you move the metering point to make framing easier.

Measuring is a crucial function of the camera (or holding the meter by hand), as we usually say, "photography is a game with light," since it establishes the exposure value for the camera. The quality of the shot will be impacted and may even be ruined by selecting the incorrect metering mode and metering technique. In contrast, the shot produces good results when correctly timed.

C. White balance

The image sensor of a camera cannot automatically adjust as accurately as the human eye, which does so extremely fast to changes in light. The primary issue with the image's color is this. Digital cameras must use a white balance to adjust the colors since the color of the image captured is frequently different from the color of the surrounding environment.

The notion of white balance, which is the adjustment of light in accordance with white, is one that has long been used by videographers. When it's sunny, daylight is a chilly, colorless light source, but when it's overcast or you're in the shade, everything takes on a mixed blue hue. While all colors in a fluorescent environment will be tinted with green, they will all have a warm orange-red hue in a room with a yellow filament bulb. To ensure that the colors in the obtained image are accurate, adjust the white balance. There are White Balance modes on every digital camera.

  • Auto White Balance: automatically balance colors

  • White Balance for many types of lighting: in the sun, in the shade, inside, under yellow lights, under fluorescent lights... the camera automatically adjusts to the lighting conditions in order to capture the genuine white.

  • K temperature: based on the K scale, users manually modify the white balance values.


"The camera is a mirror that has memory but no thought" (Arnold Newman 1918-2006).

Learn the fundamentals of the gadget you use so that you may better master it. To assist beginners capture better images, altering the knobs, buttons, or menu options is specifically suited and quick as a natural response. Users can regulate the settings with the aid of all these actions to guarantee that the image is accurate or brilliant.

Final words

Nowadays, owning a camera is not a tough task since you can locate businesses that offer both old cameras and new cameras that are appropriate for the market. We appreciate you reading the article.


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